Glaucoma is described as a collection of eye disorders that causes harm to the optic nerve of the eye, which is responsible for great eyesight. This harm is usually brought on by an extraordinarily heavy pressure in the eye.
In the United States, Glaucoma is one of the main causes of visual impairment. It can happen in individuals of any age however it is highly popular among the adult population.
The most widely recognized type of glaucoma gives no warning symptoms. The impact is quite slow to the point that no visible vision impairment is noticed until the disorder has reached the advanced glaucoma stage.
Loss of vision caused by glaucoma is a permanent condition. Hence, it is highly essential that you go for occasional eye checkups that also include eye pressure measurements. In the event that glaucoma is detected early on, visual impairment can be impeded or counteracted. Individuals that suffer from this condition, mostly require treatment throughout their remaining life time.
The symptoms and manifestations of glaucoma differ based on the type and phase of your ailment. For instance:
- Inconsistent blind spots in your side (fringe) or focal vision, usually occurs in both eyes
- Tunnel vision in the advanced glaucoma stages
Acute angle-closure glaucoma:
- Severe cerebral pain
- queasiness and vomiting
- Eye discomfort
- Distorted vision
- redness of the eyes
- Halos around lights
In the event that this condition is not treated as soon as possible, it leads to visual impairment.
Sometimes, even with the administration of treatment, around 15 percent of individuals suffering glaucoma end up visually impaired in no less than one eye inside 20 years.
When to see an eye specialist
Quickly visit an emergency room or seek the attention of an eye specialist (ophthalmologists) in the event that you encounter a considerable number of the warning signs of acute angle-closure glaucoma, for example, eye discomfort, serious migraine, and distorted vision.
Glaucoma is caused when the optic nerve suffers damage. With the progressive breakdown of the optic nerve, blind spots start to appear in your field of vision.
Though not fully clear to eye specialists, the damage to the optic nerve is generally as a result of heavy pressure in the eye.
Elevated eye pressure is caused by the accumulation of a liquid (aqueous humor) that is contained in the eye. This liquid usually flows into the front of the eye (anterior chamber) via the tissue (trabecular meshwork) at the edge where the cornea and iris join together.
At the point when the liquid is produced in excess or the drainage set up is faulty, the flow of the liquid at its usual rate becomes impossible and pressure accumulates.
Types of glaucoma
Glaucoma has a tendency to be hereditary. In a few individuals, researchers have distinguished genes identified with high pressure in the eye and damages to the optic nerve.
Here are the various types of glaucoma:
- Open-angle glaucoma
- Normal-tension glaucoma
- Angle-closure glaucoma
- Pigmentary glaucoma
- Glaucoma in kids
Since the advanced glaucoma types can render vision useless before any symptoms or side effects are obvious, you should know these risk factors:
- Having high inner eye pressure (intraocular pressure)
- Being Hispanic or Black
- Aged over 60 years
- Having a history of the ailment in your family
- Having some types of medical ailments, for example, coronary illness, diabetes, sickle cell anemia and hypertension
- Having undergone eye surgery or suffering eye injury
- Having specific eye problems, for example, partial blindness
- Taking corticosteroid prescriptions, specifically eyedrops, on a long term basis
- Early estrogen lack, for example, can happen after evacuation of both ovaries (bilateral oophorectomy) before 43 years of age
Glaucoma Treatments and medications
The harm that results from glaucoma condition can't be treated. Be that as it may, treatment and occasional medicals can impede or counteract vision impairment, mostly if you detect the condition early on.
The main objective of the glaucoma treatment is to lower eye pressure (intraocular pressure). Based on your condition, your choices may incorporate laser treatment, eyedrops or surgery.
Treatment for Glaucoma usually begins with eyedrop medications. The eyedrops can reduce the pressure on the eye by enhancing the flow of liquid in the eye or by reducing the quantity of liquid produced by the eye.
Prescription eyedrop solutions are:
- Beta blockers.
- Miotic or cholinergic agents.
- Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
- Alpha-adrenergic agonists.
In the event that using just the eyedrops fail to lower the pressure on the eyes to the supposed level, your specialist might recommend an oral prescription, specifically the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Its common symptoms include prickly finger and toes, constant urination, stomach discomfort, depression and kidney stones.
Glaucoma surgery and other treatments
A couple of different treatment alternatives include laser treatment and varying surgical methods. Its common complications are bleeding, redness, inflammation, agony, infection, loss of sight and unusually low or high eye pressure. A few kinds of eye surgery may hasten cataracts advancement.
You should contact a specialist for follow-up tests. What's more, you may end up undergoing a couple of other procedures in case your eye pressure starts to increase or other eye complications happen.
Here are some strategies designed to enhance the draining of liquid inside the eye, bringing down pressure:
- Laser Glaucoma treatment. Laser trabeculoplasty (truh-BEK-u-low-plas-tee) is a popular alternative for individuals suffering open-angle glaucoma. The specialists perform this procedure in their office. A laser beam is utilized to open obstructed channels within the trabecular meshwork. A couple of weeks may pass before the full impact of this process is felt.
- Filtering surgery. Through the trabeculectomy (truh-bek-u-LEK-tuh-me) surgical procedure, the eye specialist makes a hole in the white of the eye (sclera) and takes out a section of the trabecular meshwork.
- Drainage tubes. This process involves your eye specialist inserting a little tube into your eye.
- Electrocautery. To get rid of tissue from the trabecular meshwork, your specialist may propose a slightly intrusive method which involves the use of a little electrocautery tool known as a Trabecutome.
Treating Acute-closure glaucoma
Acute-closure glaucoma is considered a medical crisis. In case you're identified to have this eye problem, you'll require immediate treatment to decrease the pressure in your eye. For the most part, this will involve both prescription and laser or any other surgical process.
You also undergo the laser peripheral iridotomy procedure which involves the specialist using laser to create a little opening in your iris. This serves as a drainage space for liquid (aqueous humor) to drain out, reducing pressure on the eye.